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The Nanomaterials & Organic Electronics (NANO) Group, headed by Prof. Emmanuel Kymakis, is a research group within the Center of Materials Technology & Photonics (CEMATEP), working on the realization of solution processable electronic materials and devices.

Our research efforts are focused on the synthesis and solution processing of carbon nanotubes, graphene and dichalcogenides with tailored properties, for the development of low cost next generation organic and hybrid solar cells, compatible with r2r large area manufacturing methods. The group also has an extensive expertise on the performance enhancement of PV devices via various light-trapping mechanisms. The group coordinates an Erasmus LLP project on "Organic Electronics & Applications" and leads the Photovoltaics Task of the WP11 Energy Generation of the Graphene Flagship Core 1.


  • Graphene based organic and hybrid SCs

    Tuning of optoelectronic properties of solution processable graphene (SPG) and other 2D crystals derivatives. Functionalization and doping of SPG for fine tuning of their work-function. Incorporation of SPG in all the components of organic and perovskite solar cells.
  • Nanoparticle-based plasmonic SCs

    Development of a wide range of strategies of incorporating plasmonic nanoparticles (NPs) for light trapping into either the active or the buffer layer or at various interfaces within the PV cell architecture. Exploration of enhancement mechanisms (morphology, LSPR, scattering).
  • Hybrid solar cells

    Research and development for the upscaling of organic and hybrid organic-inorganic technologies via defining a technological process for organic/hybrid cells, and developing fabrication processes towards industrialization.
  • Inks for flexible electronics

    Production of graphene and other 2D nanomaterials inks specifically tailored for utilization as buffer and electrode layers in various solution processable devices.
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Publications Covers 2016 2015 2014 2013 2012 Before 2012

N. Balis, E. Stratakis, E. Kymakis Graphene and transition metal dichalcogenide nanosheets as charge transport layers for solution processed solar cells (2016) Materials Today, DOI: 10.1016/j.mattod.2016.03.01
Petridis C., Konios D., Stylianakis M.M., Kakavelakis G., Sygletou M., Savva K., Tzourbakis P., Krassas M.,Vaenas N., Stratakis E., Kymakis E. Solution-Processed Reduced Graphene Oxide Electrodes for Organic Photovoltaics (2016) Nanoscale Horizons, DOI: 10.1039/C5NH00089K
Konios D., Kakavelakis G., Petridis C., Stratakis E., Kymakis E. High efficient organic photovoltaic devices utilizing work-function tuned graphene oxide derivatives as the anode and cathode charge extraction layer (2016) Journal of Materials Chemistry A, 4, 1612-1623
Agresti A., Pescetelli S.,Cina L., Konios D., Kakavelakis G., Kymakis E., Di Carlo A. Efficiency and stability enhancement in perovskite solar cells by inserting lithium-neutralized graphene oxide as the electron transporting layer (2016) Advanced Functional Materials, 26, 16, 2686-2694
Paci B., Kakavelakis G., Generosi A., Albertini V., Wright J., Ferrero C., Konios D., Stratakis E., Kymakis E. Improving stability of organic devices: a time/space resolved structural monitoring approach applied to plasmonic photovoltaics (2016) Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, DOI:10.1016/j.solmat.2016.01.003
Noori K., Hubener H., Kymakis E., Giustino F. Modelling graphene quantum dot functionalization via EDNB (2016) Applied Physics Letters, 108, 123902
Kakavelakis G., Vangelidis I., Heuer-Jungemann A., Kanaras A.G., Lidorikis E., Stratakis E., Kymakis E. Plasmonic Backscattering Effect in High Efficient Organic Photovoltaic Devices (2016) Advanced Energy Materials, 6, 2, 1501640 [Appeared as the back cover of Adv. Energy Mater.]
Sygletou M., Tzourmpakis P., Petridis C., Konios D., Fotakis C., Kymakis E., Stratakis E. Laser induced nucletion of plasmonic nanoparticles on two-dimensional nanosheets for organic photovoltaics (2016) Journal of Materials Chemistry A, 4, 1020-1027
Noori K., Konios D., Stylianakis M., Kymakis E., Giustino F. Energy-level alignment and open-circuit voltage at graphene/polymer interfaces: Theory and experiment (2016) 2D Materials, 3,1, 015003
Viskadouros G., Konios D., Kymakis E., Stratakis E. Electron Field Emission from Graphene Oxide Wrinkles (2016) RSC Advances, 6, 2768-2773
Vaenas N., Konios D., Stergiopoulos T., Kymakis E. Slow photocharging and reduced hysteresis in low-temperature processed planar perovskite solar cells (2015) RSC Advances , 5, 107771
Paci B., Kakavelakis G., Generosi A., Albertini V., Wright J., Ferrero C., Konios D., Stratakis E., Kymakis E. Stability enhancement of organic photovoltaic devices utilizing partially reduced graphene oxide as the hole transport layer: nanoscale insight into structural/interfaces properties and aging effects (2015) RSC Advances, 5, 106930-106940
Stylianakis M.M., Konios D., Kakavelakis G., Charalambidis G., Stratakis E., Coutsolelos A.G., Kymakis E., Anastasiadis S.H. Efficient ternary organic photovoltaics incorporating graphene-based porphyrin molecule as a universal electron cascade material (2015) Nanoscale, 7, 17827-17835
Krassas M., Kakavelakis G., Stylianakis M.M., Vaenas N., Stratakis E., Kymakis E. Efficiency enhancement of organic photovoltaic devices by embedding uncapped Al nanoparticles in the hole transport layer (2015) RSC Advances, 5, 71704-71708
Heuer-Jungemann A., Kiessling L., Stratakis E., Kymakis E., El-Sagheer A.H., Brown T., Kanaras A.G. Programming the assembly of gold nanoparticles on graphene oxide sheets using DNA (2015) Journal of Materials Chemistry C, 3, 3979-9384
Sygletou M., Kakavelakis G., Paci B., Generosi A., Kymakis E., Stratakis E. Enhanced stability of Aluminum nanoparticles doped organic solar cells (2015) ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 7, 32, 17756-17764
Balis N., Konios D., Stratakis E., Kymakis E. Ternary organic solar cells with reduced graphene oxide-Sb2S3 hybrid nanosheets as the cascade material (2015) ChemNanoMat, 5, 346-352 [Appeared in the back cover of ChemNanoMat]
Lin Y.H., Faber H., Labram J.G., Stratakis E., Sygellou L., Kymakis E., Hastas N.A., Li R., Zhao K., Amassian A., Treat N.D., McLachlan M., Anthopoulos T.D. High Electron Mobility Thin-Film Transistors Based on Solution-Processed Semiconducting Metal Oxide Heterojunctions and Quasi-Superlattices (2015) Advanced Science, 2(7), 1500058
Sygellou L., Viskadouros G., Petridis C., Kymakis E., Galiotis C., Tassis D., Stratakis E., Sygellou L., Viskadouros G., Petridis C., Kymakis E., Galiotis C., Tassis D., Stratakis E. Effect of the reduction process on the field emission performance of reduced graphene oxide cathodes (2015) RSC Advances, 5, 53604-5361
Kymakis E., Spyropoulos G.D., Fernandes R., Kakavelakis G., Kanaras A.G., Stratakis E. Plasmonic bulk heterojunction solar cells: The role of nanoparticle ligand coating (2015) ACS Photonics, 2 (6), 714-72
Bonaccorso F., Balis N., Stylianakis M.M., Savarese M., Adamo C., Gemmi M., Pellegrini V., Stratakis E., Kymakis E. Functionalized Graphene as an Electron Cascade Acceptor for Air Processed Organic Ternary Solar Cells, (2015) Advanced Functional Materials, 25, 5, 3870-3880
Stylianakis M.M.,Sygletou M., Savva K., Kakavelakis G., Kymakis E., Stratakis E. Photochemical Synthesis of Solution-Processable Graphene Derivatives with Tunable Bandgaps for Organic Solar Cells (2015) Advanced Optical Materials, 5, 658-666 [Appeared in the inside front cover of Adv.Opt.Mater]
Konios D., Petridis C.,Kakavelakis G., Sygletou M., Savva K., Stratakis E., Kymakis E. Reduced graphene oxide micromesh electrodes for large area, flexible organic photovoltaic devices (2015) Advanced Functional Materials, 25, 15, 2213-2221 [Appeared in the inside front cover of Adv. Funct. Mater]
Kymakis E., Petridis C., Anthopoulos T.D., Stratakis E. Laser-Assisted Reduction of Graphene Oxide for Flexible, Large-Area Optoelectronics (2014) IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, 20 (1) , art. no. 6573325
Viskadouros G., Stylianakis M.M., Kymakis E., Stratakis E. Enhanced Field Emission from Reduced Graphene Oxide Polymer Composites (2014) ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 6(1), pp 388-393
Viskadouros, G., Zak A., Stylianakis, M.M., Kymakis, E, Tenne, R., Stratakis, E. Enhanced Field Emission from WS2 nanotubes, (2014) Small, 10, 2398-2403
Kakavelakis G., Stratakis E., Kymakis E. Synergetic Plasmonic Effect of Al and Au Nanoparticles for Efficiency Enhancement of Air Processed Organic Photovoltaic Devices, (2014) Chemical Communications, 50 (40), 5285-5287 [2014 Emerging Investigators Issue]
Savva K., Lin A.Y-H., Petridisc C., Kymakis E., Anthopoulos T.H., Stratakis E. In-situ Photo-Induced Chemical Doping of Solution-Processed Graphene Oxide for Electronic Applications, (2014) Journal of Materials Chemistry C, 2, 5931-5937
Konios D., Stylianakis M.M., Stratakis E., Kymakis E. Dispersion behavior of graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide (2014) Journal of Colloid And Interface Science (2014), 430, 108-112
Paradisanos I., Kymakis E., Fotakis C., Kioseoglou G., Stratakis E. Intense femtosecond photoexcitation of bulk and monolayer MoS2,(2014) Applied Physics Letters (2014), 105, 041108
Pattanasattayavong P.,Sygletou M., Kymakis E., Stratakis E.,Yan F.,Gregoriou V.G., Anthopoulos T.H., Chochos C.L. The Role of Ethynylene Bond on the Optical and Electronic Properties of Diketopyrrolopyrrole Copolumers (2014) RSC Advances, 4 (102), 58404-58411
Viskadouros, G., Konios D., Kymakis, E, Stratakis, E. Direct laser writing of flexible graphene field emitters (2014) Applied Physics Letters, 105, 203104
Kymakis E., Savva K., Stylianakis M.M., Fotakis, C.,Stratakis E. Flexible Organic Photovoltaic Cells with In-situ Non-thermal Photoreduction of Spin Coated Graphene Oxide (2013) Advanced Functional Materials, 23, 2742-2749
Petridis C. , Savva K. , Lin Y. , Eda G. , Kymakis E., Anthopoulos T.D., Stratakis E. Post-fabrication, in-situ laser reduction of graphene oxide devices (2013) Applied Physics Letters, 102, 093115
Stratakis E., Stylianakis M., Koudoumas E., Kymakis E. Plasmonic organic photovoltaic devices with graphene based buffer layers for stability and efficiency enhancement (2013) Nanoscale, 5 (10), 4144-4150
Beliatis M.,Henley S., Han S., Gandhi K., Adikaari D., Stratakis E., Kymakis E., Silva S. R. Organic Solar Cells with Plasmonic Layers Formed by Laser Nanofabrication (2013) Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, 15, 8237-8244
Stratakis E., Kymakis E. Nanoparticles-based Plasmonic Organic Photovoltaic Devices (2013) Materials Today, 16 (4), 133-146
Kakavelakis G., Stratakis E., Kymakis E. Aluminum nanoparticles for efficient and stable organic photovoltaics (2013) RSC Advances, 3 (37), 16288-16291
Paci B., Bailo D., Albertini V., Wright J., Ferrero C., Spyropoulos G.D., Stratakis E.,Kymakis, E. Spatially-resolved in-situ Structural Study of Organic Electronic Devices with Nanoscale Resolution: the Plasmonic Photovoltaics Case Study (2013) Advanced Materials, 25(34), 4760-4765
Kymakis, E., Stylianakis, M.M., Spyropoulos, G.D., Stratakis, E., Koudoumas, E., Fotakis C. Spin coated carbon nanotubes as the hole transport layer in organic photovoltaics (2012) Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 96 (1), pp. 298-301
Stylianakis, M.M., Kymakis, E. Efficiency enhancement of organic photovoltaics by addition of carbon nanotubes into both active and hole transport layer (2012) Applied Physics Letters, 100 (9), art. no. 093301 [Virtual Journal of Nanoscale Science and Technology, 25, 11 (2012)]
Stratakis E., Eda G., Yamaguchi,H. Kymakis E., Fotakis C., Chhowalla M. Free-standing graphene on microstructured silicon vertices for enhanced field emission properties (2012) Nanoscale, 4,3069-3074
Spyropoulos G.D , Stylianakis M.M., Stratakis, E., Kymakis, E Organic bulk heterojunction photovoltaic devices with surfactant- free Au nanoparticles embedded in the active layer (2012) Applied Physics Letters, 100, 213904 [Virtual Journal of Ultrafast Science, 11, 6 (2012)]
Stylianakis M.M., Stratakis, E., Koudoumas E.,Kymakis E, Anastasiadis S.H. (2012) ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 4 (9), pp 4864-4870
Paci, B.,G.D., Generosi, A., Bailo, D., Albertini, V.R., Spyropoulos G.D., Stratakis, E., Kymakis Enhancement of photo/thermal stability of organic bulk heterojunction photovoltaic devices via gold nanoparticles doping of the active layer, (2012) Nanoscale, 4, 7452-7459
Kymakis, E., Stratakis, E., Koudoumas, E., Fotakis, C. Plasmonic organic photovoltaic devices on transparent carbon nanotube films, (2011) IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, 58 (3), art. no. 5701662, pp. 860-864
Spyropoulos, G.D., Stylianakis, M., Stratakis, E., Kymakis, E. Plasmonic organic photovoltaics doped with metal nanoparticles , (2011) Photonics and Nanostructures-Fundamentals and Applications, 9 (2), pp. 184-189.[ Sciencedirect Top 25 Hottest Articles, July-September 2011 [1st], Jan-Dec 2011 [2nd]]
Paci, B., Spyropoulos, G.D., Generosi, A., Bailo, D., Albertini, V.R., Stratakis, E., Kymakis, E. Enhanced structural stability and performance durability of bulk heterojunction photovoltaic devices incorporating metallic nanoparticles, (2011) Advanced Functional Materials, 21 (18), pp. 3573-3582
Kymakis, E., Stratakis, E., Stylianakis, M.M., Koudoumas, E., Fotakis, C. Spin coated graphene films as the transparent electrode in organic photovoltaic devices, (2011) Thin Solid Films, 520 (4), pp. 1238-1241
Stylianakis, M.M., Mikroyannidis, J.A., Kymakis, E. A facile, covalent modification of single-wall carbon nanotubes by thiophene for use in organic photovoltaic cells, (2010) Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 94 (2), pp. 267-274
Stratakis, E., Giorgi, R., Barberoglou, M., Dikonimos, Th., Salernitano, E., Lisi, N., Kymakis, E. Three-dimensional carbon nanowall field emission arrays, (2010) Applied Physics Letters, 96 (4), art. no. 043110, [Virtual Journal of Nanoscale Science and Technology, 21, 6 (2010)]
Kymakis E. Chapter "Photovoltaic Devices Based on Carbon Nanotubes and Related Structures" (2010) Carbon Nanotubes & Related Structures, Editors D. Guldi and N. Martin Wiley-VCH, ISBN: 978-3-527-32406-4
Stratakis, E., Kymakis, E., Spanakis, E., Tzanetakis, P., Koudoumas, E. Polymer-nanotube composite mats with improved field emission performance and stability (2009) Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, 11 (4), pp. 703-709
Kymakis, E., Kalykakis, S., Papazoglou, T.M. Performance analysis of a grid connected photovoltaic park on the island of Crete, (2009) Energy Conversion and Management, 50 (3), pp. 433-438
Vernardou, D., Vlachou, K., Spanakis, E., Stratakis, E., Katsarakis, N., Kymakis, E., Koudoumas, E. Influence of solution chemistry on the properties of hydrothermally grown TiO2 for advanced applications, (2009) Catalysis Today, 144 (1-2), pp. 172-176
Kymakis, E., Kornilios, N., Koudoumas, E. Carbon nanotube doping of P3HT : PCBM photovoltaic devices, (2008) Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, 41 (16), art. no. 165110
Kymakis, E., Kalykakis, S., Papazoglou, T.M. A Photovoltaic's park performance on the island of Crete, (2008) Energija, Journal of Energy, 57, pp. 300-311
Kymakis, E., Koudoumas, E. P3HT/PCBM/SWNTs photovoltaic devices, (2008) Proc. of SPIE-The International Society for Optical Engineering, 6999, art. no. 69991N. v
Vaddiraju, S., Mathai, M., Kymakis, E., Papadimitrakopoulos, F. Radical salt-doped hole transporters in organic photovoltaic devices, (2007) Chemistry of Materials, 19 (16), pp. 4049-4055
Vernardou, D., Kenanakis, G., Couris, S., Koudoumas, E., Kymakis, E., Katsarakis, N. pH effect on the morphology of ZnO nanostructures grown with aqueous chemical growth, (2007) Thin Solid Films, 515 (24 ) pp. 8764-8767
Kymakis, E., Stratakis, E., Koudoumas, E. Integration of carbon nanotubes as hole transport electrode in polymer/fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells, (2007) Thin Solid Films, 515 (24.), pp. 8598-8600 [Sciencedirect Top 25 Hottest Articles, October-December 2007 & January-March 2008]
Kymakis, E., Servati, P., Tzanetakis, P., Koudoumas, E., Kornilios, N., Rompogiannakis, I., Franghiadakis, Y., Amaratunga, G.A.J. Effective mobility and photocurrent in carbon nanotube-polymer composite photovoltaic cells, (2007) Nanotechnology, 18 (43), art. no. 435702
Kymakis, E., Koudoumas, E., Franghiadakis, I., Amaratunga, G.A.J. Post-fabrication annealing effects in polymer-nanotube photovoltaic cells, (2006) Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, 39 (6), art. no. 010, pp. 1058-1062
Kymakis, E., Amaratunga, G.A.J Electrical properties of single-wall carbon nanotube-polymer composite films, (2006) Journal of Applied Physics, 99 (8), art. no. 084302, [Virtual Journal of Nanoscale Science and Technology, 13, 17 (2006)]
Kymakis, E., Koudoumas, E., Franghiadakis, I, Bi-layer photovoltaic devices with PPQ as the electron acceptor layer, (2006) Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 90 (12), pp. 1705-1714
Kymakis , E., Klapsis, G., Koudoumas, E., Stratakis, E., Kornilios, N., Vidakis, N., Franghiadakis, Y Carbon nanotube/PEDOT:PSS electrodes for organic photovoltaics, (2006) EPJ Applied Physics, 36 (3), pp. 257-259
Kymakis, E. The impact of carbon nanotubes on solar energy conversion, (2006) Nanotechnology Law and Business, 3 (4), pp. 405-410
Kymakis, E., Amaratunga, G.A.J. Single-wall carbon nanotube/conjugated polymer photovoltaic devices, (2002) Applied Physics Letters, 80 (1), pp. 112-114. [Virtual Journal of Nanoscale Science and Technology, 5, 2 (2002)]
Alexandrou, I., Kymakis, E., Amaratunga, G.A.J. Polymer-nanotube composites: Burying nanotubes improves their field emission properties, (2002) Applied Physics Letters, 80 (8), pp. 1435-1437
Kymakis, E., Amaratunga, G.A.J., Alexandrou, I., Chhowalla, M., Milne, W.I. Photovoltaic response in poly(3-octylthiophene) based metal-semiconductor-metal diodes (2001) Proceedings of SPIE-The International Society for Optical Engineering, 4108, pp. 112-116
Vohra A., Flewitt A.J., Kymakis E., Chhowalla M., Vardulakis G. , Amaratunga G.A.J., Milne W.I Tetrahedrally bonded Amorphous Carbon/a-Si:H Heterojunction Solar Cells, (2001) Proceedings of the 16th European Photovoltaics Conference, 1, pp.526-528
Kymakis, E., Alexandou, I., Amaratunga, G.A.J Single-walled carbon nanotube-polymer composites: Electrical, optical and structural investigation, (2002) Synthetic Metals, 127 (1-3), pp. 59-62 [Top 25 Hottest Articles, July-September 2008]
Kymakis, E., Alexandrou, I., Amaratunga, G.A.J. High open-circuit voltage photovoltaic devices from carbon-nanotube-polymer composites, (2003) Journal of Applied Physics, 93 (3), pp. 1764-1768
Kymakis, E., Amaratunga, G.A.J. Photovoltaic cells based on dye-sensitisation of single-wall carbon nanotubes in a polymer matrix, (2003) Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 80 (4), pp. 465-472. [Fuel and Energy Abstracts, 45, 6, 382, (2004)]
Kymakis, E., Amaratunga, G.A.J. Optical properties of polymer-nanotube composites,(2004) Synthetic Metals, 142 (1-3), pp. 161-167. [Sciencedirect Top 25 Hottest Articles, July-September 2004]
Bhattacharyya, S., Kymakis, E., Amaratunga, G.A.J. Photovoltaic properties of dye functionalized single-wall carbon nanotube/conjugated polymer devices, (2004) Chemistry of Materials, 16 (23), pp. 4819-4823
Kymakis, E., Amaratunga, G.A.J. Carbon nanotubes as electron acceptors in polymeric photovoltaics, (2005) Reviews on Advanced Materials Science, 10 (4), pp. 300-305

Newsand highlights

Mediaand press presence


Our key facilities include the following laboratories of total 500 m2: a Wet chemistry b Surface and electrical characterization and c Research line for organic and hybrid photovoltaics fabrication. The new established PVs dedicated line consists of two fully automatic controlled glove boxes. Solvent glove box with spin coater, UV/ozone cleaner and hot plates. Dry glove box with integrated metal vapour deposition system, in-situ probe station, solar simulator and quantum efficiency setup.
In addition to the above, there are available facilities in a shared basis through a momentum of collaboration with IESL, FORTH: Various ultrafast (femtosecond & picosecond) laser sources, TEM, FESEM/EDX, SEC, AFM, micro-Raman and UPS/XPS



Graphene Flagship

Graphene-Based Revolutions in ICT And Beyond




Plasmonic nanoparticles for efficient, stable and cheap organic photovoltaic devices



Lifelong Learning Programme (LLP)



Erasmus LLP Multilateral Programme

Organic Electronics and Applications


Stable Next Sol

COST MP1307: Unraveling Degradation Mechanisms of Organic Solar Cells by Complementary Characterization Techniques


HINT Project

COST MP1202: Rational design of hybrid organic-inorganic interfaces: the next step towards advanced functional materials



Flexible field emission elements based on micro/nano graphitic nanostructures

Research Funding Program: ARCHIMEDES III


Nanostructured hybrid solar cells