Graphene based OPVs
Graphene is an atomically thin layer of sp2-bonded carbon atoms, stacked in a two-dimensional (2D) honeycomb lattice. The extensive research on the production of solution processable graphene by exfoliation of graphite into graphene oxide (GO), has allowed the functionalization and processing of solution processable graphene flakes with various methods, triggering the large-scale production of graphene-based devices, compatible with roll-to-roll techniques. Application of solution processable graphene (SPG) materials in all the three major components of organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices: a) transparent electrode b) photoactive layer and c) interfacial (buffer) layers.
Nanopartice based plasmonic OPVs
Plasmonic metallic nanoparticles (NPs) have recently been identified as a breakthrough route for efficiency enhancement of OPVs. Metal NPs exhibit LSPR that couples strongly to the incident light field. In addition, relatively larger NPs can efficiently scatter light and thereby increase the optical path length within the BHJ layer. Hence, the incorporation of metal NPs into BHJ films offers the possibility of enhanced absorption and correspondingly enhanced photogeneration of charge carriers.